Steam driven "Fardier" by Nicolas Joseph Cugnot - 1770
In the middle of the XVIII th century, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot, a military engineer, began devlopment works to use steam power to propel a vehicle. It can be considered as one of the first attempt for a vehicle to move by itself and get rid of natural forces such as horses, …
Around 1760 scientists and engineers think of steam to propel wheels. Backed by War Minister Duc de Choiseul, Cugnot studies its use for military materials (they think of it as a way to gain speed moving artillery).
During the creating process, the Duc de Choisel retires, thus stopping this experiment at this stage; nevertheless it is a decisive step towards automobile history.
A “Fardier” is a chariot for heavy loads and materials. The one Cugnot created uses three wheels and a high pressure boiler placed at the front of the vehicle. The single wheel-drive is moved by two pistons activated by the steam. A handlebar is used to control a vertical axis allowing the vehicle to turn.
This machine can load up to 5 tonnes at the speed of 4 Km/h but has inefficient brakes and the boiler was exhausted rapidly. The “Fardier” de Cugnot never got to be used because of the retirement of the war Minister.
Wallpapers : Fardier de Cugnot 1770